Friday, July 29, 2011

Windows Command Line introduce


When your sit bottomward in advanced of the computer alone to appointment a connectivity botheration like the disability to browse the Web, admission a accurate armpit or download e-mail, the antecedent and attributes of the botheration isn't consistently clear. Fortunately, Windows includes a cardinal of congenital command-line accoutrement that can accord you advice about and advice you troubleshoot assorted aspects of your system's arrangement configuration.
All of these commands are accessible from a command Windows in either XP or Vista, which you can barrage via the Start card (type cmd into XP's Run command or into Vista's Start Search box). Don't try to run these utilities anon from Windows because they'll arise and abandon afore you accept a adventitious to use them.

IPCONFIG will acquaint you whether or not system's IP abode agreement is correct, so aback you doubtable a connectivity botheration this account should usually be your aboriginal stop. Aback you run ipconfig, the account will abode your system's IP abode and that of the network's absence gateway, which is acclimated for Internet admission (typically your broadband router).
One abiding assurance of a botheration is if ipconfig letters your arrangement has an IP abode alpha with 169.254 and lists no absence gateway, as it agency that for one acumen or addition the arrangement bootless to admission an automated IP abode via DHCP. In this state, your arrangement isn't absolutely affiliated to your network. Typing ipconifg /renew will copy the appeal and is generally abundant to bright up the problem. Aback your arrangement has accustomed a accurate IP address, it will abode one on the aforementioned arrangement as your absence aperture (for best broadband routers this is usually 192.168.x.x).

PING gives you a way to analysis basal connectivity with added systems on the arrangement or out on the Internet. This account sends out four packets (called answer requests) to a appointed target; accepting replies from the ambition confirms it's up and running, and you've affiliated to it successfully.
To use ping, blazon in the command forth with the IP abode or web armpit abode you appetite to verify connectivity to. For example, pinging your absence aperture (usually will announce whether your arrangement is in acquaintance with your broadband router, and pinging an abode on the Internet ( is a acceptable one to use) is a way to verify that your broadband router is affiliated to the Internet.
When you ping an abode auspiciously you should accept four replies in almost quick succession. Failure to accept replies — the Appeal Timed Out absurdity — (particularly from Web sites) doesn't necessarily announce a botheration because some Web servers don't acknowledge to pings in adjustment for aegis affidavit or to abbreviate arrangement traffic.

When you admission article on the Internet you're about abutting your computer to addition one. But this affiliation isn't absolute from point A to point B; rather, it's accustomed application abundant added computers as intermediaries — anticipate of it as a alternation consisting of abounding altered links.
With the tracert (trace route) utility, you see the aisle advice takes as it campaign from your arrangement to its destination. Blazon tracert, and an IP abode or armpit name, and you'll get a account of the altered segments, or hops, forth the avenue forth with the time, in milliseconds (ms) anniversary one takes. An badly continued acknowledgment (longer than a brace of hundred milliseconds) from any of the hops could explain a apathetic connection.
As with the ping tool, however, some sites may be configured not to acknowledge to tracert requests (again, for aegis reasons), so you can't consistently use it to trace a aisle all the way to a final destination.

When you admission a armpit name like into your Web browser, it's the job of a Domain Name Service (DNS) server to translate, or resolve, that name into the site's IP abode so you can ability it.
On best home and baby networks, the Internet Service Provider (ISP) operates the DNS servers, and aback problems with those servers action (which is not uncommon), you may not be able to admission sites and casework on the Internet alike if your affiliation is absolutely up and running.
The NSLOOKUP apparatus can accord you a way to verify whether DNS is activity appropriately on your network. Just blazon nslookup additional the name of any armpit (like If you accept an IP abode in acknowledgment (depending on the site, you may accept several) it agency a DNS server was able to auspiciously analysis and abode aback the advice for that site. A abeyance error, on the added hand, may announce a botheration with your ISP.


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